Using Endnotes in Academic Writing: A Comprehensive Guide
The first citation format that learners meet in college or university is MLA. It is the most straightforward way to work with sources that contain critical information on the chosen subject. There are five reasons why citation and reference are vital:
- To differentiate between other writers
- To create plagiarism-free paper
- To show the student's research skills
- To introduce the potential readers to the comprehensive information on the topic you choose
- To get a high grade
If you do not cite sources correctly, you risk getting a low credit or even failing the test. Besides, many students face some challenges related to plagiarism. For example, the MLA format of academic writing does not require using footnotes or endnotes.
However, what are the endnotes? They are references or comments provided at the end of the paperwork. Each college or university department provides unique requirements for using footnotes or endnotes. Let's learn more about the last type of references in academic and scientific papers.
The Notion of Endnotes Formatting
The way you use endnotes depends on the required formatting. However, there are three general rules for writing endnotes:
- While composing an initial draft (introduction, body paragraphs, and concluding part), write down quotes on the note card to defend your point;
- Add endnotes to determine cited sources. If you prefer to provide such information via endnotes, you should combine them in a separate section that precedes the References or Bibliography page. And do not forget about the proper organization of this paperwork part;
- Check the professor's guidelines carefully to choose the required citation format.
Each college or university student may make the endnotes shorter if the details were provided in previous endnotes. Let's review four popular endnote formats.
Ways to Use MLA Endnotes
The Modern Language Association has developed this format. It has considered the most widespread format of resource citation. The reason is simple: the writer should put minimum effort when preparing academic paperwork. The current 8th edition covers requirements for liberal arts, humanities, English Composition, and literature references. In the MLS guide, you will find formatting rules for the following components of assignments:
- In-text references
- Articles Cited
- Overall paper formatting
The endnotes may prevent the audience from reading the entire essay, so there is no necessity to use these elements in the MLA paper. However, some professors require to add both footnotes and endnotes. In this case, we are talking about links to additional materials that may excite the reader for more immersion in the subject.
To indicate endnotes in the MLA style assignment, you must use Arabic superscript numbers - they follow after the period mark of the sentence, relating to the reference. But if you use the em dash, you should put the number before this mark.
Finally, you should mention all references on a separate Notes page. It will go before the Works Cited page, which will be the last and concluding page of the academic paperwork.
Ways to Use APA Endnotes
Our next question is, "how to format endnotes in an APA paper?" Like in the Modern Language Association standard case, a writer should highlight an endnote by a superscript Arabic number after the punctuation mark in a chosen sentence. But, such an element has to precede the dash (if it is used in the endnote).
You can easily add a superscript number using the relevant function in Microsoft Word: Insert - References. Before adding the endnote, you should place the cursor where you need an endnote.
Besides, the writer has to create a list of the endnotes and place it in the regular format after the Reference section (similar to the Work Cited page in the MLA assignment). This paragraph should be preceded by a title page, with the word Notes in the middle of the page.
Ways to Use Turabian and Chicago Endnotes
Both citation formats have some similarities, so we will review them in more detail in one section.
Four key elements differ from both MLA and APA styles:
- The writer's name
- Title of the cited source
- Chapter title (if required)
- Publication information
An endnote reference structure is also different from the bibliography citation. You should endure that you separate all the citation elements with commas. Among others, you have to write the author's first name and last name, placing the middle name first. If there are four or more writers, specify the name of the first one, then put a comma and the words "et al." Thus, your audience will understand that there are more writers to research the subject.
Book editors and other publishers should be noted by the abbreviations ed. and trs.
Finally, you should place the book publication details in brackets and add a space between the title name and the publication details for an article. Volume and issue number have to be separated by a comma. All the titles should be italicized. Regarding the chapters and scholarly articles, you have to place them in quotes.
Examples of Using Endnotes
So, how to write the MLA endnotes? Let's look at the examples that provide the best answer to this question:
See Blackmur, especially chapters 3 and 4, for an insightful analysis of this trend.
On the problems related to repressed memory recovery, see Wollens 120-35; for a contrasting view, see Pyle 43; Johnson, Hull, Snyder 21-35; Krieg 78-91.
Explanatory footnotes may refer readers to other sources for additional information. Supplementary and illustrative sources are introduced by "see" or "see, for example."
Example: For a technical discussion, see William A. Brock and Steven N. Durlauf, "Growth empirics and reality," World Bank Economic Research, vol. 15, No. 2 (2001).
Some other citation formats like Turabian or Chicago use another template. Here are two examples:
1 Gordon Lighticane, Wonders of the Radio (Chicago: Malort Press, 1997), 16.
2 Luftswaag, The Advent of Air, p. 32.
In general, the differences lie in the specific elements that need to be included in the endnote. Therefore, our examples are exhaustive.
Extra Help and Hints
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