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Academic Paper, Citation Styles

Citation Styles for Academic Papers, Pt. 2

Oct 05, 2012 - Posted to  Writing in General
 
APA, MLA, Chicago, CSE, Harvard, Turabian are not the only citation styles used in academic writing.
Read article "Citation Styles for Academic Papers, Pt. 1" that covers several styles more.

Turabian

In addition to The Chicago Manual of Style (CMS), the University of Chicago also publishes A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. The guide was developed by Kate Turabian, and the style is usually referred to simply as Turabian.

Who uses Turabian?

While The Chicago Manual of Style is aimed at publishers, the Turabian guide is designed to be used by students at the undergraduate and graduate level. It's used across a wide variety of disciplines.
The Turabian style is very similar to the Chicago style, with only a few changes designed to accommodate the needs of student writers. Like the CMS, Turabian offers two methods for citing sources. Papers written in the humanities usually use the notes-bibliography system while papers in the hard and social sciences will use the author-date system (also called the parenthetical-reference system).

Notes and Bibliography

In-text citations

Citations are marked in the text with a numbered superscript which refers to the full bibliographic information listed either in footnotes (which are at the end of each page) or endnotes (which are at the end of the paper). Turabian allows you to use either foot- or endnotes. Endnotes should be numbered consecutively throughout the paper. Footnote numbers should restart at the beginning of each chapter. In-text citations look like this:
Even a good night's sleep can't soothe Marianne, and she awoke the next morning "to the same consciousness of misery in which she had closed her eyes."1 Elinor, who "did not find the matrimonial interference of Mrs. Jennings to be at all welcome,"2 nonetheless felt she had to accept Mrs. Jennings's offer.
The accompanying footnote/endnote would look like this:
1 Jane Austen, Sense and Sensibility (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008), 150.
2 Arthur Conner and Alex Barth, The Life and Times of Jane Austen (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1968), 160.
The above examples are for books. Note that for the footnote or endnote entry, only the page being quoted is listed. The full page range is provided in the bibliography at the end.
Footnotes/endnotes for a journal article:
3Nicholas D. Poulson and Terry Lechler. "Robust control of mitotic spindle orientation in the developing epidermis," Journal of Cell Biology 191, no. 5 (2010): 917.
Footnotes/endnotes for a website article:
4Tanya Maria Luhrman. "Beyond the Brain," The Wilson Quarterly. Summer 2012. http://www.wilsonquarterly.com/article.cfm?aid=2196 (accessed Sept. 15, 2012).
When referring back to a source you have already referenced, you only need to provide the author's last name and the page number. If you refer to the same reference in two consecutive notes, use the abbreviation ibid. In the following example, note #5 refers to the previously mentioned journal article, but cites a different page. Note #6 refers to the same source and page number listed in the note above it:
5 Poulson, 919.
6 ibid.

Bibliography

Collect all the works cited at the end of your paper in alphabetical under the heading Bibliography. The format of cited works in the bibliography will differ slightly from the entries in the endnotes and footnotes. The above resources would like this in the bibliography:
Austen, Jane. Sense and Sensibility. New York: Oxford Press, 2008.
Conner, Arthur and Barth, Alex. The Life and Times of Jane Austen. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1968.
Poulson, Nicholas D. and Lechler, Terry. "Robust control of mitotic spindle orientation in the developing epidermis." Journal of Cell Biology 191, no. 5 (2010): 915-922.
Luhrman, Tanya Maria. "Beyond the Brain." The Wilson Quarterly. Summer 2012. http://www.wilsonquarterly.com/article.cfm?aid=2196 (accessed Sept. 15, 2012).

Author-Date

In-text citations

The author's name, the publication date, and the referenced page numbers should be included in parenthesis at the end of the clause containing the quote:
Even a good night's sleep can't soothe Marianne, and she awoke the next morning "to the same consciousness of misery in which she had closed her eyes" (Austen 2008, p. 150).
Elinor, who "did not find the matrimonial interference of Mrs. Jennings to be at all welcome" (Conner and Barth 2005, p. 126), nonetheless felt she had to accept Mrs. Jennings's offer.
When referring to an entire work or if there are no page numbers use just the author and date.

Works Cited

All cited works should be alphabetized by author's last name on the References page with the following formatting:
Austen, Jane. 2008. Sense and Sensibility. New York: Oxford Press.
Poulson, Nicholas D. and Lechler, Terry. 2010. "Robust control of mitotic spindle orientation in the developing epidermis." Journal of Cell Biology 191, no. 5: 915-922.

CSE

The Council of Science Editors (formerly the Council of Biology Editors) is a professional organization for editors in the sciences. Their style manual is called Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers.

Who uses CSE?

CSE is used mostly by students and researchers in biology and medicine. The CSE has three systems of citations: citation-sequence, citation-name, and name-year.

Citation-sequence

In citation-sequence formatting, citations are made using consecutive superscript numbers following the cited text. Each reference has a unique number, and when a source is cited multiple times you always use the same number. This means that numbers on page can be out of order. In-text citations look like this:
Even a good night's sleep can't soothe Marianne, and she awoke the next morning "to the same consciousness of misery in which she had closed her eyes."1 Elinor, who "did not find the matrimonial interference of Mrs. Jennings to be at all welcome,"2 nonetheless felt she had to accept Mrs. Jennings's offer.
Sources are listed in the references section in the order in which they are cited in the text. Note that the formatting is different for the notes and the bibliography.
Books with a single author:
Austen, J. Sense and Sensibility. New York: Oxford Press; 2008. 150 p.
Books with multiple authors:
Conner, A, Barth, A. The Life and Times of Jane Austen. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux; 1968. 160 p.
Journal articles:
Poulson, ND, Lechler, T. Robust control of mitotic spindle orientation in the developing epidermis. J Cell Biol. 2010; 191(5): 915-922.
Note that in all CSE citation systems, journal titles are abbreviated. Click here for a list of abbreviations.
Website articles:
Luhrman, TM. Beyond the Brain. The Wilson Quarterly. [Internet]. 2012 [cited 2012 Sept. 15]. Available from http://www.wilsonquarterly.com/article.cfm?aid=2196.

Citation-name

All reference formatting is the same in the citation-name system as it is in the citation-sequence system, but instead of listing references in sequence on the reference page, all sources are listed alphabetically by author's last name and then numbered. The numbers are used in superscript to cite works in the text.

Name-year

In the name-year system, the author's last name and the publication year are listed in parenthesis following the cited text. All references are then listed in alphabetical order on the References page. The formatting for this style differs slightly than for the other two CSE systems.

In-text citations

For in-text citations, the author's last name and the year of publication are given in parenthesis.
Even a good night's sleep can't soothe Marianne, and she awoke the next morning "to the same consciousness of misery in which she had closed her eyes" (Austen 2008).
Elinor, who "did not find the matrimonial interference of Mrs. Jennings to be at all welcome" (Conner and Barth 1968), nonetheless felt she had to accept Mrs. Jennings's offer.
Tests showed however that the difference was not significant (Melvin et al. 2006).

Works Cited

All works cited are listed in alphabetical order on the References page.
Books with a single author:
Austen, J. 2008. Sense and Sensibility. New York: Oxford Press. 150 p.
Books with multiple authors:
Conner, A, Barth, A. 1968. The Life and Times of Jane Austen. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. 160 p.
Journal articles:
Poulson, ND, Lechler, T. 2010. Robust control of mitotic spindle orientation in the developing epidermis. J Cell Biol. 191(5): 915-922.
Website articles:
Luhrman, TM. 2012. Beyond the Brain. The Wilson Quarterly. [Internet]. [cited 2012 Sept. 15]. Available from http://www.wilsonquarterly.com/article.cfm?aid=2196.

AMA

The AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors is a style guide from the editors of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

Who uses AMA?

AMA style is used mainly for papers in medical research.

In-text citations

Sources are cited in the text using consecutive superscript numerals.
Research has shown that "reductions of this magnitude in calorie intake and body weight typically require far more intensive intervention than can be achieved through conventional outpatient methods."1
Attempts to changes in eating habits, like previous attempts to curb smoking, need to take place at the institutional level.2,3
Newspaper articles and other non-retrievable resources like personal communications are cited in parenthesis and not included in the list of references at the end of the paper.
It's been reported that insurance companies actively worked to remove these patients from their plans (Ottawa Daily News, October 21, 2005:3.).

Works Cited

Cited worked are listed in the Reference section in the order in which they appear in the paper. Note that, like CSE, the AMA guidelines have abbreviations for journal names.
Books with a single author:
Austen, J. Sense and Sensibility. New York: Oxford Press; 2008.
Books with multiple authors:
Conner, A, Barth, A. The Life and Times of Jane Austen. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux; 1968.
Journal articles:
Poulson, ND, Lechler, T. Robust control of mitotic spindle orientation in the developing epidermis. J Cell Biol. 2010;191(5):915-922.
Website articles:
Luhrman, TM. Beyond the Brain. The Wilson Quarterly. http://www.wilsonquarterly. com/article.cfm?aid=2196. Published Summer 2012. Accessed September 18, 2012.
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