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Academic Paper, Citation Styles

Citation Styles for Academic Papers, Pt. 1

Oct 02, 2012 - Posted to  Writing in General
 
APA, MLA, Chicago, CSE, Harvard, Turabian are not the only citation styles used in academic writing.
Read article "Citation Styles for Academic Papers, Pt. 2" that covers several styles more.
There are dozens of writing style guides out there, and from MLA to APA to CMS, every style is a little different. These variations can make formatting your academic papers a huge hassle. This is especially true for citations - every style guide has requirements for referencing other works, and sometimes all it takes is a missed comma for everything to be out of place. To help you write your next academic paper, we've put together this helpful list of citation guidelines to make your job easy.

MLA

The Modern Language Association (MLA) is a professional organization for teachers and students of language and literature. The publish The MLA Manual of Style and The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers.

Who uses MLA?

MLA is the standard style guide for papers in English and literature as well as for classes in modern languages like Spanish and French. It is also very commonly found in other humanities disciplines such as history, art, and philosophy. MLA is often used to teach basic formatting rules in high school.

In-text citations

Direct quotes and paraphrasing should be cited using the author's last name and the specific page in parenthesis following the punctuation that ends the clause containing the quote.
Even a good night's sleep can't soothe Marianne, and she awoke the next morning "to the same consciousness of misery in which she had closed her eyes" (Austen 150).
Elinor, who "did not find the matrimonial interference of Mrs. Jennings to be at all welcome" (Conner and Barth 126), nonetheless felt she had to accept Mrs. Jennings's offer.
If the author's name is included in the text of the sentence, only the page number needs to be given in the citation.
Often it is Elinor who gives in to her mother and sister, but when accepting Mrs. Jennings offer Austen notes that she "submitted to the arrangement which counteracted her wishes, with less reluctance than she had expected to feel" (117).
Multiple quotes can be listed in the same set of parenthesis as long as the meaning is clear.
Elinor remarks on Marianne's "imprudence and want of thought" and later goes on to say that Marianne "did more harm than good to the cause" (Austin 44, 46).

Works Cited

All the works referenced in the paper should be gathered together and listed alphabetically by the author's last name on the "Works Cited" page. You don't need to list all the resources you consulted for your paper, just the works that you directly cite in the text. The first line of each entry should be at the left margin, and following lines should be indented.
Book with one author:
Sullivan, John Jeremiah. Pulphead: Essays. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2011. Print.
Book with two more authors:
Cooke, Ester M., Williams, Michael C., and Cohn, Melissa S. Introduction to American Authors. Stanford: University of Stanford Press, 1998. Print.
Selections from an anthology:
Lopez, Alice. "My Life: a Poem." Poetry of the American Southwest. Ed. Elizabeth Horn. Arizona: University of Arizona Press. 2001. Print.
(Note: the name of the anthology's editor comes after the title of the book.)
Article from a journal:
Poulson, Nicholas D, and Lechler, Terry. "Robust control of mitotic spindle orientation in the developing epidermis." Journal of Cell Biology 191.5 (2010): 915-922. Web. 15 Aug. 2011.
(Note: the entry ends with the date the article was accessed online.)
Article from a website:
Luhrman, Tanya Maria. Beyond the Brain. The Wilson Quarterly. Summer 2012. Web. 18 Sept. 2012.
(Note: the title of the article should come after the author's name, followed by the name of the website and the date of publication.)

APA

The American Psychological Association (APA) is a professional organization for students, scholars, and professionals working in psychology. Like the MLA, they publish a style guide, which is called the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Society.

Who uses the APA?

Obviously, those writing in the field of psychology will use the APA format, and this format is used widely throughout all the social sciences. It is also sometimes taught in high school, although it focuses more on citation of sources not commonly used in K-12, including research papers, dissertations, and conference proceedings. You'll find that APA style follows the same general citation rules as MLA with a few small changes in order and punctuation.

In-text citation

Quotes and paraphrased portions of text are cited in parenthesis following the text with a comma between the author's name, the publication year, and the page number. Works with two authors should list both names joined with an ampersand (&), and works with two or more authors should list the first author followed by et. al.
Even a good night's sleep can't soothe Marianne, and she awoke the next morning "to the same consciousness of misery in which she had closed her eyes" (Austen, 2008, p. 150).
Elinor, who "did not find the matrimonial interference of Mrs. Jennings to be at all welcome" (Conner & Barth, 2005, p. 126), nonetheless felt she had to accept Mrs. Jennings's offer.
When the author's name is used in the text, the cited page number should follow in parenthesis.
Walters et. al. (2004, p. 117) believed that Austen's portrayal of Marianne is actually a scathing rebuke to the attitudes of the time period.

Works Cited

All referenced works should be organized alphabetically by author on the "References" page.
Book with one author:
Sullivan, J.J. (2011). Pulphead: Essays. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
Book with two more authors:
Cooke, E.M., Williams, M.C., and Cohn, M.S. (1998) Introduction to American Authors. Stanford: University of Stanford Press.
Selections from an anthology:
Lopez, A. (2001) "My Life: a Poem." In E. Horn (ed.) Poetry of the American Southwest. Arizona: University of Arizona Press.
(Note: the name of the anthology's editor comes before the title of the book.)
Article from a journal:
Poulson, N.D. and Lechler, T. (2010) "Robust control of mitotic spindle orientation in the developing epidermis." Journal of Cell Biology 191(5): 915-922.
(Note: the volume number of the journal is followed by the issue in parenthesis.)
Article from a website:
Luhrman, T.M. (2012, Summer.) Beyond the Brain. The Wilson Quarterly. Retrieved Sept. 18 2012 from http://www.wilsonquarterly.com
(Note: APA style suggests included a URL in the citation.)

Chicago Manual of Style

The Chicago Manual of Style (CMS) is published by the University of Chicago Press.

Who uses the Chicago Manual of Style?

It's used widely in publishing and is a popular formatting style for academic papers in history. The CMS actually includes two different citation styles, so when you're writing a paper using this manual be sure to check with your teacher or publisher so you know which one to use.
Notes and Bibliography
The first citation format is known as the Notes style. In this format, references are documented in footnotes (which appear at the end of each page) or in endnotes (which appear at the end of the document). The CMS prefers endnotes, but either is acceptable. Quotes and paraphrased ideas are followed by a superscript number that refers to the endnote. Numbering should be consecutive throughout the whole paper. In-text citations will look like this:
Even a good night's sleep can't soothe Marianne, and she awoke the next morning "to the same consciousness of misery in which she had closed her eyes"1 ... Elinor, who "did not find the matrimonial interference of Mrs. Jennings to be at all welcome"2, nonetheless felt she had to accept Mrs. Jennings's offer...
And at the end of the paper will be a list of references that looks like this:
1Jane Austen, Sense and Sensibility (New York, Oxford University Press, 2008), 150.
2Arthur Conner and Alex Barth, The Life and Times of Jane Austen (New York, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1968), 160.
3Nicholas D. Poulson and Terry Lechler. "Robust control of mitotic spindle orientation in the developing epidermis," Journal of Cell Biology 191, no. 5 (2010): 915-922.
4Tanya Maria Luhrman. "Beyond the Brain," The Wilson Quarterly. Summer (2012). http://www.wilsonquarterly.com
Note: in the above examples, 1 is a book with a single author, 2 is a book with multiple authors, 3 is a journal article, and 4 is a website article.
Often the endnotes will be all that your paper requires, but some Notes-style academic papers may also need a bibliography. This will be an alphabetical listing of your sources by the last name. The formatting is slightly different - the above endnotes would look like this in the bibliography:
Austen, Jane. Sense and Sensibility. New York: Oxford Press, 2008.
Conner, Arthur and Barth, Alex. The Life and Times of Jane Austen. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1968.
Luhrman, Tanya Maria. "Beyond the Brain." The Wilson Quarterly. Summer (2012). http://www.wilsonquarterly.com
Poulson, Nicholas D. and Lechler, Terry. "Robust control of mitotic spindle orientation in the developing epidermis." Journal of Cell Biology 191, no. 5 (2010): 915-922.
Author-Date Citations
The Chicago style manual also allows for in-text citations similar to the APA format, with the author's last name, the year of publication, and the page numbers given in parenthesis following a quote. Referenced works are then compiled in a "Works Cited' page at the end of the paper.

In-text citations

Even a good night's sleep can't soothe Marianne, and she awoke the next morning "to the same consciousness of misery in which she had closed her eyes" (Austen 2008, p. 150).
Elinor, who "did not find the matrimonial interference of Mrs. Jennings to be at all welcome" (Conner and Barth 2005, p. 126), nonetheless felt she had to accept Mrs. Jennings's offer.

Works Cited

Cooke, E.M., Williams, M.C., and Cohn, M.S. 1998. Introduction to American Authors. Stanford: University of Stanford Press.
Poulson, N.D. and Lechler, T. 2010. "Robust control of mitotic spindle orientation in the developing epidermis." Journal of Cell Biology 191: 915-922.
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